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حاجی قاسمی - عقد عاریه
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مفهوم و ماهیت عقد عاریه :

مطابق مادة 635 ق.م عاریه عقدی است كه به موجب آن یكی از طرفین قرارداد ، به طرف دیگر اجازه میدهد از عین مال او به طور مجانی استفاده كند ، عاریه دهنده را مُعیر و عاریه گیرنده را مُستعیر گویند ؛ از تعریف یاد شده نكات زیر بدست می آید :

1-   عاریه از عقود معین و عهدی است .

2-   عاریه از عقود جایز است .

3-   عاریه از عقود غیر معّوض ( عوض ندارد ) و مجانی است .

4-   در عقد عاریه مستعیر فقط حق انتفاع و بهره برداری دارد و تملیكی صورت نمیگیرد .

مطابق مادة 637 ق.م شرایط مورد عاریه عبارتند از :

1-   اموالی عاریه داده میشود كه پس از انتفاع باید به مالكش مسترد شود ، بنابراین عاریه باید چیزی باشد كه با بقاء اصل آن مستعیر بتواند منتفع شود .

2-   منفعت مورد نظر طرف قرارداد باید مشروع باشد .

3-   منفعت باید عقلایی باشد .

حقوق و تكلیف طرفین در عقد عاریه :

مسئولیتهای مستعیر :

طبق مادة 640 ق.م مستعیر ضامن تلف یا نقصان مال عاریه نمی باشد چون یدوی امانی است ، مگر اینكه تعدی یا تفریط ( زیاده روی یا كوتاهی در استفاده و نگهداری ) كرده باشد .

درعقد عاریه اصل برعدم مسئولیت یا ضمان مستعیر است مگر اینكه شرط شود كه درهرصورت مسئول میباشد ؛ اما در عاریه طلا و نقره مطابق مادة 644 ق.م درهرصورت مستعیر ضامن است یعنی اصل بر مسئولیت و ضمان مستعیر میباشد .

مستعیر تكلیف دارد مورد عاریه را فقط به كسی كه ازوی دریافت كرده است یا قائم مقام قانونی او یا كسی كه از طرف معیر اذن دارد ، مسترد كند . ضمناً چون عاریه عقد جایز است لذا اگر یكی از طرفین فوت كند یا مجنون شود ، عقد منفسخ میشود و مستعیر باید مورد عاریه را به وراث معیر مسترد كند .

مخارج نگهداری مال مورد عاریه با مالك ( معیر ) است ولی مخارج مربوط به استفاده ازمال مانند عین مستأجره كه با مستأجر میباشد ، درعقد عاریه با مستعیر است .

مسئولیت و تكالیف معیر :

اگردرمال مورد عاریه عیوبی باشد كه برای مستعیر خسارت وارد كند ، معیر مسئول خسارت وارده نیست ، مگر اینكه عرفاً‌ معیر مسبب ورود خسارت به مستعیر شناخته شود .

مثلاً اتومبیلش را عاریه بدهد و با علم به اینكه ترمزهای آن خراب است و خوب عمل نمی كند ،‌ به مستعیر نگوید و درنتیجه مستعیر تصادف كند ، اگر در دادگاه ثابت كند كه از خرابی ترمز ماشین آگاهی نداشته و معیر هم اطلاع نداده است ، مسئول خسارت وارده معیر میباشد .

عقد عاریه چون جایز است و اگر مستعیر فوت كند یا محجور شود ؛ باید معیر مورد عاریه را دریافت كند و ضمناً مخارج نگهداری و حفظ مال مورد عاریه با معیر است .





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